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Heated floor
Print 2010-01-12 17:30  

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Heated floor can guarantee warmth and coziness in your home environment. Quite often the device of heated floor refers to effective use of energy and convenient conditions in the area. When you heat the area with a heat-exchanger, the highest temperature is at the celing. In summer, when cold water goes through the drains, heated walls can also cool the area.

Heated walls are ideally suitable for the bathroom, near the bathhouse entrance, in a kitchen, hallway or cellar. If these technologies are installed according to all requirements, there will be no problem. However, if you try to reduce the conditions of a device and exploitation without meeting the requirements, a problem can be found. It is possible to do the heating with electricity, with the use of special cables as well as by blowing the warm water through channels in the floor.

Water- heated floor


Whilst heating the area you should fit the water circulation of two temperatures in the floors.When the heated floor area is small, it is possible to apply another method that regulates the water temperature of the heated floor. For this purpose a special valve should be used which is to be fitted on a recursive pipeline automatically regulating the amount of water circulation in the pipes as well as the temperature.
An automative water temperature limiter should be fitted in to the heated floor so that to avoid a too high water temperature spread in the floor heating circuit. The limiter can be set to 60-50°C temperature. Once this temperature is achieved, the water circulation in the tubes fitted in the floor is automatically stopped or the running water rate is reduced.

Concrete layer

The base of heated floor should be strong enough, smooth and dry. All heated floor layers require a floor height of 8-10 cm. If the floor is not smooth, automatically smoothing solutions should be used. It is important to lay a required concrete layer above the pipes. The pipes in floors should be fitted in a thicker way to avoid cold air flows near the floor, in the areas which have big windows. 16,17,18,20 mm pipes in diameter should be used for residential areas. A pipe of 25 mm is to be used for coating heating of large areas, such as hangars, stadiums. A fine-grained concrete whose thickness above the heating isolation is no smaller than 6,5 and above the pipes no smaller than 4,5 is to be used for the concrete over of the pipes. When the concrete layer is too thick and the energy input is big, a large amount of heating will be accumulated by the concrete mass, so, there will be problems because of the heating temperature mode control. If the concrete layer is too thin, it will get overheated in the pipe fitting areas.

Before the concrete laying process, tests should be made on the pipes whereas the working pressure should be left inside them whilst laying the concrete over. Whilst laying the concrete, the temperature inside should be no higher than 25 °C. During the concrete laying process it is not allowed to heat the layed concrete as scratches or other defects might appear. During concrete consolidation, the concrete layer should be moistened two days after the concrete lay over. Later on, the circulating water temperature for the floor should be no higher than 50 oC so that the concrete and the floor surface would not get overheated.

Temperature seams

The concrete mass gets warm due to the running warm water within the floor in the fitted pipes. Concrete is a good heat conductor and has a large heating accumulation which makes conditions to get the floor surface heated evenly. If you want to do the jobs properly, you should consider the volumetric dolutation of concrete. Inner stretches happen due to the former one. If you want to avoid this, temperature seams should be fitted in all area perimeter, in door openings and across the area. If one of the area dimensions is bigger that 8 m it is necessary to design a temperature seam. Transverse temperature seams should be fitted in heated floor if the floor area is bigger than 30 mІ. If temperature seams are fitted across the area, the same should be done in floor covering as well.

Elastic isolation materials which have a recursive deformation should be used for the fitting of the temperature seams (for example, puffed polythene panels with the thickness of around 1 cm). A pipe beside the temperature seams should be in a corrugated plastic plate of no smaller than 60 cm lenght.

Heat isolation

It is also important to remember fitting a suitable heating isolation between the span and the concrete layer so that the heat would not get through to the bottom areas or coating. Polystyrene, stone cotton or other materials that meet the requirements for the heated floor can be used for this purpose. Heating isolation is designed in separate sheets. The sheet seams should be sealed so that no concrete would fall. The thickness of heating isolation in floor between the areas with the same air temperature where polystyrene is used, should be 3,2-3,5 cm.

Floor coverings

Before laying a floor covering, heated floor should be preheated. The floor should be preheated no sooner than 21 days before the concrete lay over. The heating should be started with a water of 25 °C temperature. Water temperature in the heating system should be increased in no more that 5 °C in a day. Whilst heating, the area should be cooled, however draughts should be avoided. The maximum temperature of the heated floor should be kept for 4 days or till the moisture of the concrete layer will be 2,0-2,5 percent. The floor cooling is made in an order opposite to the heating, by lowering the water temperature in no smaller than 5 °C per day.

The floor covering can be layed only when the floor surface is cooled to around 20 °C. Whilst laying the floor covering, you should strictly stick to manufacturer's instructions and recommendations for the floor laying. Only materials which have a manufacturer's mark saying that the covering can be used for heated floors is suitable for the floor coverings should be used. The chosen material should not emit any materials which make harm to the human's health. The floor covering on the top determine the efficiency of the heat transmission in to the area. Bricks, marble, stone and other coverings of high density transmit the heat best. Carpetings stop this process. If the floor is covered with a thick carpeting, it might be necessary to have the water temperature provided for the supplier floor system.

Whilst laying with a wooden floor covering, you should bear in mind that the drying wood shrinks, and this can result in gaps. So the parquet should have the moisture of 8-10 percent. The base of concrete should be totally dried and the moisture no bigger than 1-1,5 percent and wood is sensitive to moisture changes.

Area temperature

The total area of well fitted heated floor warms up evenly, the temperature of the floor surrface is no higher than 26 °C; hot bars are not sensed in pipe laying places, no scrathes get obvious. Warm air heats up the air of the area, which rising up from the floor surface gets mixed with the air of the area and cools.

If you want to ensure the required air temperature, you should regulate the size of the heat flow which is transmitted by the heated floor in to the area. For this reason a temperature regulator is fitted in the heated area which helps to set the required area tempereature. The temperature can be changed with a programmable regulator. However, it should be noted that if the air in the area is too dry (less than 30 percent), you can start feeling the drying of your throat, mucuous membrane, face or hand skin, experience discomfort; other health issues can also happen. However, there should be no health issues if the floor is be fitted in the bathroom, near the bathhouse entrance, in the kitchen or the hallway. Though, if these are living rooms, various alternatives should be considered, perhaps even the watering possibilities.


Categories: Underfloor Heating Equipment (Radiant Heating), Flooring, Heating, Bathrooms, Sanitaryware, Heating System Design


 


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